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Iran's Nuclear Facilities: a Profile
by Andrew Koch and Jeanette Wolf 1998
by the Center for Nonproliferation Studies
 

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Applied Research Center of Iran (MTK Iran) The Applied Research Center of Iran, which is also known as MTK Iran, is affiliated with the Ministry for Heavy Industries and the Iranian Defense Research Organization (IDRO). Located in Tehran, the facility is listed as an official research center and conducts R& D on steel alloy production, processing non-ferrous metals, corrosion resistant technology, and metal casting. 160

Assessment: Although the technologies MTK Iran develops have civilian applications, many could also be used in a military program. In particular, developing the ability to produce maraging steel and corrosion resistant alloys could allow Iran to manufacture materials used to build uranium enrichment centrifuges. Although it is unclear how much progress Iran has made in these efforts, the 1996 seizure of maraging steel in the U. K. (see NISCO) suggests that Iran does not yet have the capacity to produce the high-strength alloy in sufficient quantities.

Azad University Azad University has a HT-6B tokamak fusion research reactor, which was supplied by the Chinese Academy of Sciences' Institute of Plasma Physics under a February 1993 agreement. 161 In 1994, Chinese technicians assisted with the installation and initial operation of the reactor. 162 According to former AEOI head Reza Amrollahi, Iran plans to build a second tokamak at an undisclosed location. 163

Assessment: The HT-6B tokamak is a fusion research reactor which uses magnetic fields to confine and heat deuterium and tritium plasma fuel. As part of their normal operations, most tokamaks remove and recycle small amounts of tritium, a vital nuclear weapon component. Such a device would give Iranian technicians experience working with fusion technology, which is potentially applicable to a thermonuclear weapon design program.

Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics Established by the AEOI in 1989, this Tehran-based center researches theoretical, particle, and high energy physics applications. 164 The institute is primarily a training facility for Iranian nuclear scientists, and may be known as the Jabit bin al-Hayyan Laboratory. 165

Assessment: This institute could provide training in the fundamentals of nuclear science for Iranian technicians and researchers. Although the school is not directly involved in a nuclear weapons program, it could train those who conduct such activities. 16

1 "Iran's Nuke Plant Deal with Russia Raises Fears," The Washington Times, 10 January 1995, p. A13. 2 "Russia Takes Over Construction of Iranian Nuclear Plant," AFP, 18 February 1998. 3 Michael Eisenstadt, Iranian Military Power: Capabilities and Intentions (Washington, D. C.: The Washington

Institute for Near East Policy, 1996), p. 106. 4 Veronika Romanenkova, Itar-Tass, 21 March 1996; in FBIS-SOV-96-057 (21 March 1996); Judith Perera, TheNuclear Industry in the Former Soviet Union: Transition from Crisis to Opportunity (London: Financial Times Energy Publishing, 1997), p. 68; Interfax, June 4, 1996; in FBIS-SOV-96-109 (4 June 1996). 5

Eisenstadt, Iranian Military Power: Capabilities and Intentions, p. 107. 6 David Albright, "An Iranian Bomb?" The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 51 (March -August 1995), p. 22. 7 Eisenstadt, Iranian Military Power: Capabilities and Intentions, pp. 106-107; R. Jeffrey Smith, "Administration Concerned About Russia's Nuclear Cooperation with Iran," The Washington Post, 3 July 1997, p. A7. 8

Veronika Romanenkova, Itar-Tass, 15 August 1995; in FBIS-SOV-95-157 (15 August 1995). 9 "Russian Contract Extended to Fuel," Nuclear News 38 (October 1995), p. 47. 10 Mark Hibbs, "Iran May Keep Russian Spent Fuel or Take Plutonium, REPU, Waste," NuclearFuel, 26 December 1995, p. 10. 11

Reuters, 8 January 1995; in "Russia Signs Deal for Iranian Nuclear Plant," Executive News Service, 8 January 1995. 12

IRNA, 22 June 1989; in JPRS-TND-89-014 (14 July 1989), p. 15. 13 Mark Hibbs, "Bushehr Construction Now Remote after Three Iraqi Air Strikes," Nucleonics Week, 26 November 1987, pp. 5-6. 14

Elaine Sciolino, "Iran's Nuclear Goals Lie in Half-Built Plant," New York Times, 19 May 1995, p. A4; Mark Hibbs, "Bonn Will Decline Tehran Bid to Resuscitate Bushehr Project," Nucleonics Week, 2 May 1991, p. 17. 15

Hibbs, "Bonn Will Decline Tehran Bid to Resuscitate Bushehr Project;" Hibbs, "Bushehr Construction Now Remote after Three Iraqi Air Strikes." 16

Hibbs, "Bushehr Construction Now Remote after Three Iraqi Air Strikes." 17 Angel Munoz, El Independiente, 6 February 1990, p. 4; in JPRS-TND-90-006 (16 March 1990), pp. 38-39. 18 "USSR/ Iran: Iranians Say Soviets Will Aid in Nuclear," Nucleonics Week, 15 March 1990, p. 18; Andrei Khalip, Reuters, 5 September 1995; in "Work on Iran Reactor Already Started," Executive News Service, 5 September 1995; Interfax, 5 September 1995; in FBIS-TAC-95-005 (5 September 1995). 19

"Iran's Nuke Plant Deal with Russia Raises Fears," The Washington Times. 20 Veronika Romanenkova, Itar-Tass, 15 September 1995; in FBIS-SOV-95-179 (15 September 1995). 21 "Russian N-Plant Offer to Iran," The Financial Times, 21 February 1995, p. 4; "Iran: Russian Contract Extended to Fuel," Nuclear News. 18 22 Giorgio Cecchetti, "Nuclear Consignment Bound for Iran Seized," La Republica, 12 November 1993; in JPRS-TND- 93-037 (8 December 1993); "Italy: Bushehr Steam Generators Transferred," Nucleonics Week, 6 June 1991, p. 16; "Italy: Demonstrators Protest Iran Shipment," Nucleonics Week, 29 October 1987, p. 13. 23

CTK, 22 December 1993; in JPRS-TND-94-003 (31 January 1994); "Skoda Plzen Would Like to Promote Itself on the Iranian Market," Mlada Fronta Dnes, 21 October 1995, p. 1; in FBIS-EEU-95-206 (25 October 1995); Jaroslav Kmenta and Lukas Havlas, "Skoda Has Already Established an Enterprise with the Iranians in Tehran," Mlada Fronta Dnes, 21 October 1995, p. 2; in FBIS-EEU-95-206 (25 October 1995); CTA, 27 October 1995; in FBIS-EEU-95-211-A (27 October 1995). 24

"Nuclear Proliferation: Iran," Program for Promoting Nuclear Nonproliferation Newsbrief (Fourth Quarter 1994), p. 16. 25

Michael R. Gordon, "Ukraine Decides not to Supply Key Parts for Iranian Nuclear Reactor," New York Times, 15 April 1997, p. A6; Russian Public Television First Channel Network (Moscow), 6 March 1998, in FBIS-SOV-98- 065 (March 6 1998). 26

Interfax, 18 April 1997; in FBIS-TAC-97-108 (18 April 1997). 27 Mark Hibbs, "Bonn Would 'Weigh Carefully' Iran Request for Siemens PWR Data," Nucleonics Week, 28 March 1996, p. 1. 28

Veronika Romanenkova, Itar-Tass, 21 March 1997; in FBIS-SOV-97-080 ( 21 March 1997). 29 Interfax, 4 May 1995; in FBIS-SOV-95-086 (4 May 1995); Boris Konovalov, "Two Faced Atom: Fight for the Iranian AES," Pravda, 29 June 1995, p. 3; in FBIS-SOV-95-125 (29 June 1995), p. 5. 30

"Russia Was to Start Work on Bushehr," Nuclear News 38 (September 1995), p. 18; Rostislav Khotin, Reuters, 13 January 1997; in "Russia Says It Plans to Boost Nuclear Exports," Executive News Service, 14 January 1997. 31

Interfax, 6 February 1996; in FBIS-SOV-96-026 (6 February 1996). 32 Hibbs, "Bonn Would 'Weigh Carefully' Iran Request For Siemens PWR Data." 33 Mark Hibbs, "Minatom Says It Can Complete One Siemens PWR in Iran in Five Years," Nucleonics Week, 29 September 1994, pp. 3-4. 34

Mark Hibbs, "Russia-Iran Bushehr PWR Project Shows Little Concrete Progress," Nucleonics Week, 26 September 1996, p. 3. 35

Ibid. 36 Ibid. 37 Hibbs, "Minatom Says It Can Complete One Siemens PWR in Iran in Five Years;" Hibbs, "Bonn Will Decline Tehran Bid to Resuscitate Bushehr Project;" "Iran: Government Sues Siemens over Bushehr Plant," Nuclear News 39 (October 1996), p. 37. 38

Mark Hibbs, "Close Bonn-Siemens Ties Put at Stake in Iran Damage Case," Nucleonics Week, 26 September 1996, p. 15; Reuters, 2 August 1996; in "Iran Sues Siemens over Nuclear Power Plant," Executive News Service, 28 August 1996. 39

Hibbs, "Bonn Would 'Weigh Carefully' Iran Request for Siemens PWR Data." 40 Hibbs, "Russia-Iran Bushehr PWR Project Shows Little Concrete Progress." 41 Veronika Romanenkova, Itar-Tass, 21 March 1997; in FBIS-SOV-97-080 (21 March 1997). 42 David Schwarzbach, "Iran's Nuclear Puzzle," Scientific American 276 (June 1997), pp. 62-65. 43 Hibbs, "Iran May Keep Russian Spent Fuel or Take Plutonium, Repu, Waste." 44 Ibid. 45 Interfax, 17 August 1995; in FBIS-TAC-95-016-L (17 August 1995). 46 Vadim Kantor, "The Supreme Court Reviewed 'Greenpeace vs. Minatom'," Segodnya, 6 April 1996, p. 12. 47 David Schwarzbach, Iran's Nuclear Program: Energy or Weapons? (Washington, D. C.: Natural Resources 19 Defense Council, 7 September 1995). 48 Natalya Timashova, "Will Russia Become the World Dump for Nuclear Wastes?" Izvestiya, 9 September 1995, p. 2; "Russian Contract Extended to Fuel," Nuclear News. 49

Hibbs, "Iran May Keep Russian Spent Fuel or Take Plutonium, Repu, Waste." 50 Reuters, 1 September 1994; in "Iran to Open New Atomic Energy Center," Executive News Service, 11 September 1994; Eisenstadt, Iranian Military Power: Capabilities and Intentions, p. 107. 51

"International Atom Chief Inspecting Iran Research Facilities," Associated Press, 20 July 1997, (http:// www. nando. net/ newsroom/ ntn/ world/ 072097/ world11_ 21458. html); "Economy and Business: Nuclear Technology," Iran Focus, December 1995, p. 8. 52

Stephen Green, "Nuclear Helping Hand for Iran," The Washington Times, 13 December 1995, p. A18. 53 Leonard S. Spector, Nuclear Ambitions (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1990), p. 204; Marko Milivojevic, "Russia and Iran: Nuclear Deal," Middle East International, 20 January 1995, p. 14; Nuclear Engineering International, World Nuclear Handbook 1996 (Surrey, U. K.: Reed Business Publishing, 1995), p. 22. 54

Keyhan, 19 July1990, p. 4; in JPRS-TND-90-016 (20 September 1990), p. 33; "China Sells Reactor to Iran," Mednews, 14 September 1992, p. 2. 55

Robert Shuey and Shirley A. Kahn, "Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress," CRS IssueBrief, 12 February 1996, p. 12; Jeffrey Parker, Reuters, 29 September 1995, "China Puts Iran Nuclear Genie Back in Bottle;" in Reuters Insurance Briefing, 29 September 1995; "A Bomb for the Ayatollahs?," The Middle East, October 1992, p. 23; Mark Hibbs and Margaret L. Ryan, "Official Says China Developing Ability to Supply Entire PWRs," Nucleonics Week, 1 October 1992, pp. 4-5. 56

Hibbs and Ryan, "Official Says China Developing Ability to Supply Entire PWRs." 57 R. Jeffrey Smith, "China-Iran Talks Spark U. S. Worry Nuclear Transfer Could Be Used for Arms," TheWashington Post, 17 April 1995, pp. A1, A12; Hibbs and Ryan, "Official Says China Developing Ability to Supply Entire PWRs." 58

Evan S. Medeiros, "China, Russia Plan to Go Ahead with Nuclear Reactor Sales to Iran," Arms Control Today 25 (May 1995), p. 23. 59

"Three Points of Disagreement between Tehran and Beijing; Chinese-Iranian Nuclear Cooperation Facing Possibility of Total Collapse," Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, 2 May 1995, p. 2; in FBIS-NES-95-099 (21 May 1995). 60

Ibid. 61 "China's Reactor Sale to Iran Now in Doubt," Arms Control Today 25 (October 1995), p. 24; "China Softens Stance Against Iranian Reactors," The Washington Post, 30 September 1995, p. A8; Christopher S. Wren, "Mixed Signals over Status of Iran Deal," New York Times, 30 September 1995, p. 4. 62

Wren, "Mixed Signals over Status of Iran Deal," p. 4. 63 IRIB Television First Program Network, 6 December 1995; in FBIS-TAC-95-007 (6 December 1995). 64 "Iran's Nuclear Program," Risk Report 1 (September 1995), pp. 6-7. 65 "Rafsanjani's Bomb," Mednews, 8 June 1992, p. 3. 66 Mark Hibbs, "U. S. Warned Not to Try Using IAEA to Isolate or Destabilize Iran," Nucleonics Week, 8 October 1992, p. 10; Nuclear Engineering International, World Nuclear Handbook, p. 105; "Research Reactors," NuclearReview (April 1996), p. 17. 67

Walid Abi-Murshid, Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, 12 February 1994, pp. 1, 4; in JPRS-TND-94-006 (16 March 1994), pp. 56-57; Hibbs, "U. S. Warned Not to Try Using IAEA to Isolate or Destabilize Iran;" Nuclear Engineering International, World Nuclear Handbook 1996, p. 105. 68

Schwarzbach, Iran's Nuclear Program: Energy or Weapons?, p. 6. 69 Mark Hibbs, "Iran Told IAEA It Will Build Chinese UF6 Plant at Isfahan," NuclearFuel, 16 December 1996, pp. 1, 10-11. 20 70 Ibid. 71 Con Coughlin, "China Drops Iran Atom Deal," The Sunday Telegraph, 1 October 1995. 72 Barton Gellman and John Pomfret, "U. S. Action Stymied China Sale to Iran," The Washington Post, 13 March

1998, p. 1. 73 John Pomfret, "U. S. May Certify China on Curbing Nuclear Exports," The Washington Post, 18 September 1997, p. A28. 74

Mark Hibbs, "IAEA Explores Iran's Intentions, Minus Evidence of Weapons Drive," Nucleonics Week, 13 February 1992, pp. 12-13. 75

The World of Learning, 45th Edition (London: Europa Publications Ltd, 1995), p. 768. 76 Steve Coll, "U. S. Halted Nuclear Bid by Iran," The Washington Post, 11 November 1992, p. A30; Mark Hibbs, "Sensitive Reactor Deal May Hinge on MFN for China," Nucleonics Week, 1 October 1992, p. 5. 77

"Rafsanjani's Bomb," Mednews; Con Coughlin, "Chinese Help Iran Join the Nuke Club," The Washington Times, 25 September 1995, pp. A1, A8. 78

"Danieli at Risk in Isfahan Project," The Iran Brief, 6 May 1996, p. 5. 79 Ibid. 80 "Isfahan's Alloy Steel Complex Goes on Stream," Iran Business Digest, (http:// www. neda. net/ ibd/ ne1aug22. html), 22 August 1996. 81

Con Coughlin, "Britain Seizes Bomb-Grade Steel Cargo," The Washington Times, 11 August 1996, p. A8. 82 "Danieli at Risk in Isfahan Project," The Iran Brief. 83 David Watts, "Tehran Denies Nuclear Charges," The Times, 15 March 1993; "Agreement Signed on Bushehr," Nuclear News 38 (March 1995), p. 4. 84

"USSR/ Iran: Iranians Say Soviets Will Aid in Nuclear," Nucleonics Week; Andrei Khalip, Reuters, 5 September 1995; in "Work on Iran Reactor Already Started," Executive News Service, 5 September 1995; Interfax, 5 September 1995; in FBIS-TAC-95-005 (5 September 1995). 85

Watts, "Tehran Denies Nuclear Charges;" "Agreement Signed on Bushehr," Nuclear News. 86 Ibid. 87 "Rafsanjani's Bomb," Mednews. 88 Ibid. 89 Ibid. 90 "Iran Warns USA to 'Think Twice' about an Attack," Jane's Defence Weekly, 12 June 1996, p. 27. 91 "Rasfsanjani's Bomb," Mednews. 92 Arnold Beichman, "A Modern Genghis with Risky Dreams," The Washington Times, 13 August 1992, p. G3; HetBelang van Limburg, 12 February 1992, pp. 1, 4; in JPRS-TND-92-005 (3 March 1992), p. 39; Coughlin, "Chinese Help Iran Join the Nuke Club." 93

Coughlin, "Chinese Help Iran Join the Nuke Club." 94 Het Belang Van Limburg; in JPRS-TND-92-005 (3 March 1992). 95 Greg Gerardi and Maryam Aharinejad, "An Assessment of Iran's Nuclear Facilities," The NonproliferationReview 2 (Spring-Summer 1995), pp. 207-213. 96

Schwarzbach, Iran's Nuclear Program: Energy or Weapons?, p. 7; David Albright and Mark Hibbs, "Spotlight Shifts to Iran," The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 48 (March 1992), pp. 9-11. 97

Albright and Hibbs, "Spotlight Shifts to Iran;" IRNA, 6 November 1995; in FBIS-NES-95-215 (6 November 1995). 98

Reuters, "Nuclear Experts Visit Three Atomic Sites in Iran," 26 November 1993. 21 99 "Success of Czechoslovak Machines in Iran," Czechoslovak Heavy Industry, March 1984, p. 37. 100 "Tehran to Buy German M-Tool Maker," The Iran Brief, 6 January 1997, p. 8. 101 John Shields, Profiles of Industrial and Scientific Activity in Iran (McLean, VA: Science Applications

International Corporation, 1992), p. G-11. 102 "A Bomb for the Ayatollahs?" The Middle East. 103 Kenneth Timmerman, "Iran: Ever More Threatening," National Security Quarterly 1 (1993), pp. 30-33. 104 Ibid. 105 "Iran's Nuclear Ambitions," Jane's Intelligence Review: Special Report No. 6, p. 13. 106 Hibbs, "U. S. Warned Not to Try Using IAEA to Isolate or Destabilize Iran." 107 "Rafsanjani's Bomb," Mednews. 108 Mark Hibbs, "IAEA Says It Found No Non-Peaceful Activity during Recent Iran Visit," Nucleonics Week, 16 December 1993, pp. 10-11. 109

Tehran Home Service, 18 September 1985; in BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 1 October 1985; The Worldof Learning, p. 767. 110

"Iran's Nuclear Weapons Program: Iranian Procurement Fronts," Mednews, 8 June 1992, p. 6. 111 The World of Learning, p. 767. 112 "Research Reactors," Nuclear Review; Schwarzbach, Iran's Nuclear Program: Energy or Weapons?, pp. 5-6, 52. 113 "Argentina Confirms Deal for Work on Bushehr," Nuclear News 30 (July 1987), p. 54; "Argentina Strikes Deal with Iran," Nuclear Engineering International 32 (July 1987), pp. 4-5. 114

Claude van England, "Iran Defends Its Pursuit of Nuclear Technology," The Christian Science Monitor, 18 February 1992, p. 7; "Update to Iranian Nuclear Facilities," The Arms Control Reporter 23 (March 1993); Gamini Seneviratne, "IAEA Approves Argentine Fuel for Tehran Research Reactor," NuclearFuel, 3 October 1988, p. 13. 115

Akbar Etemad, "Iran," in Harald Mueller, ed., European Non-Proliferation Policy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 9. 116

Shyam Bhatia, Nuclear Rivals in the Middle East (London: Routledge, 1987), p. 85. 117 Schwarzbach, Iran's Nuclear Program: Energy or Weapons?, p. 52. 118 Ibid. 119 Mark Hibbs, "German-U. S. Nerves Frayed over Nuclear Ties to Iran," NuclearFuel, 14 March 1994, p. 10; Mark Hibbs, "Sharif University Activity Continues Despite IAEA Visit, Bonn Agency Says," NuclearFuel, 28 March 1994, p. 10. 120

Anthony Cordesman and Ahmed Hashim, Iran: Dilemmas of Dual Containment (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1997), p. 297. 121

Mark Hibbs, "Iran Sought Sensitive Nuclear Supplies from Argentina, China," Nucleonics Week, 24 September 1992, pp. 2-3. 122

Hibbs, "U. S. Warned Not to Try Using IAEA to Isolate or Destabilize Iran;" Eisenstadt, Iranian Military Power:Capabilities and Intentions, p. 11. 123

"China Agrees to End Nuclear Trade with Iran When Two Projects Completed, ' NuclearFuel, 3 November 1997, p. 3. 124

Spector, Nuclear Ambitions, p. 206. 125

Eisenstadt, Iranian Military Power: Capabilities and Intentions, p. 109; James V. Grimaldi and David Greenwald, "Some Gear Legally Shipped by Firm Went to Agency Linked to Iranian Military," The Orange CountyRegister, 30 August 1991, p. D6; Marcy Gordon, "U. S. Exported Software, Parts to Iran, Syria, Records Show," TheSan Francisco Chronicle, 8 August 1991, p. A2. 126

"Complex Inaugurated at Laser Research Center," IRIB Television First Program Network, 13 October 1992; in 22 24 FBIS-NES-92-201 (16 October 1992), p. 40. 127 World Energy and Nuclear Directory (Essex, U. K.: Longman Group, 1990), p. 199; Mark Gorwitz, Second TierNuclear Nations Laser Isotope Separation Programs: Technical Citations and Comments (Unpublished Manuscript, January 1996). 128

"The Iranian Atomic Energy Organization: Programs and Plans," Ettela'at, pp. 5, 7; in FBIS-NES-93-067 (9 April 1993), p. 42; "Laser Research Laboratory Becomes Operational," Keyhan, 21 October 1992, p. 1; in FBIS-NES- 92-227 (24 November 1992), p. 68. 129

Hibbs, "German-U. S. Nerves Frayed over Nuclear Ties to Iran." 130 Gorwitz, Second Tier Nuclear Nations Laser Isotope Separation Programs; Technical Citations and Comments; "The Iranian Atomic Energy Organization: Programs and Plans," Ettela'at. 131

Ibid. 132 Ibid. 133 Steve Coll, "Loan from Tehran Saved Third World Nuclear Research Center," The Washington Post, 24 December 1992, pp. A8, A10. 134.

World Energy and Nuclear Directory, p. 199. 135 Mark Gorwitz, Second Tier Nuclear Nations Laser Isotope Separation Programs; Technical Citations andComments; "The Iranian Atomic Energy Organization: Programs and Plans," Ettela'at; The World of Learning, p. 771; Anthony Gerring, ed., International Research Centers Directory, 8th Edition 1996-1997 (Detroit: Gale Research, 1995), p. 680; World Energy and Nuclear Directory, p. 199. 136.

World Energy and Nuclear Directory, p. 199. 137 Ibid. 138 Ibid. 139 David Schwarzbach, "Iran's Nuclear Puzzle." 140 Hibbs, "Iran Sought Sensitive Nuclear Supplies from Argentina, China." 141 Hibbs, "German-U. S. Nerves Frayed over Nuclear Ties to Iran;" Hibbs, "Sharif University Activity Continues Despite IAEA Visit, Bonn Agency Says." 142

"Sharif University of Technology; Administrators," (http:// www. sharif. ac. ir/ sharif/ admin. html). 143 Mark Hibbs, "Iran Says It Has No Plans to Acquire Enrichment Program or Plan," NuclearFuel, 23 November 1993, p. 5. 144

Herbert Krosney, Deadly Business (New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1993), p. 264; Eisenstadt, IranianMilitary Power: Capabilities and Intentions, p. 108. 145

Krosney, Deadly Business, p. 264; "Iran and the Bomb," FRONTLINE, Show #1116, 13 April 1993. 146 Mark Hibbs, "Siemens Venture Believed Used in Pakistan Centrifuge Quest," NuclearFuel, 28 August 1995, p. 14. 147

Hibbs, "IAEA Inspectors to Revisit Iran; 'Nothing on the Ground, ' U. S. Says." 148 Eisenstadt, Iranian Military Power: Capabilities and Intentions, p. 108; Krosney, Deadly Business, p. 265; "Iran and the Bomb," FRONTLINE; BBC Panorama, 6 March 1993; in Suppliers of Dual-Use Technology to Iran, (Washington, D. C.: U. S. House of Representatives, Subcommittee on International Security, International Organizations, and Human Rights, Committee on Foreign Affairs, 13 September 1993), p. 11. 149

Krosney, Deadly Business, p. 265; "Iran and the Bomb," FRONTLINE. 150 Eisenstadt, Iranian Military Power: Capabilities and Intentions, p. 109. 151 Dean Takshashi, "Federal Agents Accuse Two of Export Violations," The Orange County Register, 29 August 1991, p. D5; Grimaldi and Greenwald, "Some Gear Legally Shipped by Firm Went to Agency Linked to Iran." 152

Christina Lee, "Pair Charged with Illegal Exports to Iran," The Los Angeles Times, 13 September 1991, p. D2. 23 153 Krosney, Deadly Business, p. 277. 154 Ibid. 155 Iran Does Not Have Technology to Build Nukes: Russian Minister," AFP, 13 February 1998. 156 David Albright, Frans Berkhout, and William Walker, Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium 1996: World

Inventories, Capabilities and Policies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), p. 355. 157 Anthony Gerring, ed., International Research Centers Directory, 9th Edition 1997 (Detroit: Gale Research, 1996), p. 426. 158

Ibid. 159 Mark Hibbs, "IAEA Will Explore New Charges Iran Has Enrichment Program," Nucleonics Week, 22 February 1996, pp. 4-5. 160

Materials Research Centers, 5th Edition (London: Longman Group, 1993), p. 208. 161 Cheng Yan, "China's Nuclear Fusion Technology Moves into International Arena," Zhongguo Kexue Bao [Chinese Science News], 8 March 1995, p. 1; in JPRS-CST-95-006 (8 March 1995). 162

Ibid. 163 IRNA, 7 May 1997; in FBIS-NES-97-127 (7 May 1997). 164 "Welcome to the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics," (http:// www. gpg. com/ isri/ imp. html); "Iran," (http:// preprints. cern. ch/ institutes/ iran. html). 165

"Iran's Nuclear Program," The Risk Report. 166 Ettela'at, 12 January 1985, p. 4; in "Over 5,000 Tons of Uranium Reserves Discovered," JPRS-TND-85-004 (26 February 1985), p. 68. 167

"Iran's Phantom Bomb," The Risk Report 1 (September 1995), p. 4. 168 The World of Learning, p. 771. 169 U. S. Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, Testimony of Gary Milhollin before the Subcommittee on NearEastern and South Asian Affairs, 6 May 1997. 170

Richard Kessler, "General Atomics, INVAP Explore Research Reactor, Nuclear Ties," Nucleonics Week, 2 April 1992, p. 15. 171

"INVAP Fears Bankruptcy after Shipment Is Halted," Nuclear Engineering International 37 (June 1992), p. 12. 172 Smith, "Administration Concerned about Russia's Nuclear Cooperation with Iran." 173 Ibid. 174 Itar-Tass, 28 November 1992; in FBIS-NES-92-230 (30 November 1992), p. 72. 175 Spector, Nuclear Ambitions, p. 205. 176 "Secret Nuclear Sites Detailed," The Iran Brief, 6 November 1995, p. 10. 24  

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